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107. It may be preferable to leave as much flexibility as possible to the parties involved in mutual recognition. For example, under NAFTA, any form of mutual recognition agreement is theoretically possible in order to give the parties the greatest possible flexibility, so as not to discourage recognition initiatives. An MRA between engineers from certain states or provinces in Canada and the United States does not need to be extended to the rest of the country, let alone Mexico. In addition, NAFTA assumes that even parties that are part of the same regional agreements may have greater differences between them than with some external third parties. The benefits of mutual recognition negotiated by one or two parties with third parties (e.g. B between the US and the EU) need not necessarily extend to other NAFTA signatories. 99. However, to maintain the spirit of multilateralism and the highest level of accompaniment, the WTO must ensure that the adoption of a network of NRAs around the world does not lead to greater fragmentation of international professional practices. This involves at least three types of tasks. clarifying the boundary between unilateral commitments and the possibility of making MRAs, while ensuring transparency and openness of the various bilateral or regional MRAs; Create a normative framework to solve the problems of transit and compatibility between these different agreements, with the aim of integrating them into a global decentralized framework.

(67) xxvi. « UIA Accord on International Recommended Standards of Professionalism in Architectural Practice », adopted by UIA Assemby in Barcelona, Spain, on 9 July 1996. The agreement builds on an agreement between the United States and Canada, first signed in 1978 and expanded as an annex to the architecture of the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement. The ESTV has defined the need for a common standard for accreditation without specifically rewarding these standards. Indeed, a recognition process under the FTA has been launched between the National Council of the Architectural Board and the Commission of the Canadian Architectural Council. 63. An MRA must indicate the activities corresponding to a particular right to practise or to a particular capacity. However, the extent of activities authorised by a single professional practice or authorised under a particular title may vary from a national scheme (e.g.B Barristers` and Solicitors` in the UK to generic `lawyers` or `lawyers` on the continent; Engineers vs. architects in different countries). (50) In theory, mutual recognition should mean that the activities authorised are those carried out by the trader in the home country (e.g. recognition has been implemented for financial services in the EU).

However, in most cases, the scope of recognition is reduced to activities authorised in the host country under the respective professional seal. It can even be further reduced to exclude regulated activities that are at the centre of the profession in the host country, for example. .

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